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Beginner's Tutorial for CGI using Perl Language
Operators

# Operators

There is no lack of operators in perl. Only the most important and the most used are listed below.

Note : The variable \$a has the value 3 and \$b has the value 8. These values will NOT change - in other words, these values will be same for every example.

## Arithmetic operators

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
-subtraction5 - \$a2
*multiplication3 * \$b24
/division6 / \$a2

## Extras

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
++Adds 1 to the value on the left (so if \$i were equal to 1, \$i++ would equal 2)\$a++\$a will be 4
--Subtracts 1 from the value on the left.\$a--\$a will be
+=Adds the values to the left and right of the operator and then stores the value in the left variable. \$a += \$b;\$a will be 11
-=Subtracts the values to the left and right of the operator and then stores the value in the left variable. \$b -= \$a;\$b will be 5
*=Multiplies the values to the left and right of the operator and then stores the value in the left variable. \$a *= \$b;\$a will be 24

## Numeric comparison

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
==equalityif(\$a == \$b)False
!=inequalityif(\$a != \$b)True
<less thanif(\$a < \$b)True
>greater thanif(\$a > \$b)False
<=less than or equalif(\$a <= \$b)True
>=greater than or equalif(\$a >= \$b)False

## String comparison

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
eqSee whether two

## strings

are equal.
"String" eq "String"True
neSee whether two

## strings

are NOT equal.
"String" ne "String"False

## Boolean logic

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
&&AND if(\$a>\$b && \$b>7)False
||OR if(\$a>\$b || \$b>7)True
!NOT if(!\$b)False

## Other operators

OperatorExplanationExampleExample Result
=assignment \$a = 5;\$a will become 5
.string concatenation(In case you can't see the operator, its is a dot - a period - '.') \$a = "Str1" . "Str2";\$a will be "Str1Str2"
xstring multiplication \$a = "Me" x 5\$a will be "MeMeMeMeMe"

Most of the operators for perl are common among the popular languages like C++, Java etc. So if you have any programming experience, you will be well at ease with the operators in perl. But there are a few additions in perl like 'eq', 'ne', '.' etc. Take a moment to learn them and then let us move on....

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